Uttar Pradesh, India’s most populous state, is home to the country’s largest number of people without electricity access: as of late 2017, 14.6 million households—49 per cent of the state’s total—are yet to be electrified.

Fossil fuel subsidies undercut the international community’s Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and climate change objectives in many ways.

This study, undertaken by IISD-GSI and ICF International, untangles the energy-water nexus by analyzing how subsidized electricity has incentivized groundwater extraction in Haryana, India. The research identifies agricultural subsidies in general and then quantifies the major irrigation, fertilizer and agricultural electricity subsidies.

The extent to which governments subsidize electricity generation technologies is not generally clear. However, claims abound that each generation type—nuclear, fossil fuel and renewables-benefits to the detriment of others.