This working paper models the impact of the removal of fossil fuel subsidies on greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reductions for the following countries: Algeria, Bangladesh, Brazil, China, Egypt, Germany, Ghana, India, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Mexico, Morocco, Myanmar, Nigeria, Pakistan, Russia, Saudi Arabia, South Africa, Sri Lanka, Tunisia, United

Fossil fuel subsidies undercut the international community’s Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and climate change objectives in many ways.

This paper explores the concept of financial sustainability and proposes a framework to analyze electricity sectors based on this model. The concept of financial sustainability includes the ability of the electricity sector to recover costs, meet demand, make investments and operate according to environmental and social norms.

Carbon dioxide emissions from the steel sector are significant and growing: global emissions of carbon dioxide from fuel combustion in the sector increased by 61 per cent between 2000 and 2009, an annual average growth rate of 5.4 per cent.

The cement industry is a major source of CO2 emissions, accounting for about 5 per cent of anthropogenic CO2 emissions.

This policy brief summarizes two research papers on fossil-fuel subsidy reform in India and highlights the key policy recommendations. The Government of India spent over US$ 9 billion subsidizing fuel products – diesel, kerosene, LPG and, to a lesser extent, gasoline – in 2010-11.

This report surveys the publicly available estimates of subsidies to biofuels and conventional liquid transport fuels,
including both consumption subsidies and the production subsidies provided to the oil industry. This report:

The extent to which governments subsidize electricity generation technologies is not generally clear. However, claims abound that each generation type—nuclear, fossil fuel and renewables-benefits to the detriment of others.

This background paper provides an overview of the role and profile of international carbon market mechanisms in a new international post-2012 climate change agreement. The paper first reviews the three market-based instruments under the Kyoto Protocol and then examines a range of possible market mechanisms under consideration in the international climate change negotiations.

This paper provides a comprehensive overview of the search for a home, or homes, for hosting international deliberations and action on energy subsidy reform. The two most obvious contenders for such an ?institutional home? are the World Trade Organization (WTO) and the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC).