While the Copenhagen Accord was far from the comprehensive agreement that many anticipated coming out of the 15th meeting of the Conference of the Parties (COP 15) in Denmark in 2009, one should not entirely
discount the potential of the agreement to develop a solid foundation and framework to help countries begin to respond effectively to climate change.

This background paper provides an overview of the role and profile of international carbon market mechanisms in a new international post-2012 climate change agreement. The paper first reviews the three market-based instruments under the Kyoto Protocol and then examines a range of possible market mechanisms under consideration in the international climate change negotiations.

This report focuses on how foreign policy can help to further EU objectives on climate change and clean energy, looking specifically at how the EU can more effectively partner with large developing emitters in supporting a global transformation to cleaner energy systems over the first half of this century.

This report explores ways in which an integrated climate change-foreign policy approach might improve prospects for a more effective global climate change regime. Such a regime would cover actions to mitigate or adapt to climate change in the near and long term and be characterized by an international agreement that would see wide global participation following the 2012 expiration of the Kyoto Protocol. This is important because climate change is not just an environmental issue, being connected to fundamental social, economic and geopolitical issues.