G7 countries (and others around the world) are in the early stages of an energy transition – including, in some areas, a shift away from the production and consumption of fossil fuels. This transition is being driven by decarbonisation objectives and policies, as well as a sharp reduction in the cost of clean technologies.

China and India, the world’s most populous countries, also match each other on the scale and severity of urban air pollution. Addressing this pollution requires that governments reorient policies away from fossil fuel combustion.

This report sheds light on the potential climate benefits of the removal of fossil fuel production subsidies in terms of both greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reductions and the oil, gas and coal reserves that could become uneconomical to produce.

This report seeks to assess the cost to the Chinese government, in terms of subsidies, of operating and investing in coal-fired electricity generators, the predominant source of electricity in China.

This report offers a summary of several countries’ experiences implementing energy policy shifts in an area of particular interest to China: the transition away from coal to cleaner fuels and a low-carbon economy.

Ontario has successfully implemented its policy to put an end to coal use in 2014.

This report evaluates the principal costs and benefits of the European Union’s biofuels industry, based on an assessment of best available information. Depending on the availability of data, some costs and benefits are quantified, while others have not been due to a lack of systematic or disaggregated information.

The debate on the costs and benefits of governments’ support to biofuels development has gained considerable momentum, especially in light of fiscal austerity measures and the “food versus fuel” debate associated with the impacts of biofuels expansion on agricultural markets.