The increasing trend of rising tropospheric temperatures due to the global climate change is reflected in the efficacy
of Indian monsoons too. It is imperative to have a high level, skilled mechanism to monitor and predict this trend
to help manage preparedness.

The main motivation of this comprehensive study is to understand climatological and fluctuation features of the extreme rainfall events (EREs) considering
detailed account of spatial variability of rainfall occurrences. Experiences suggest that the EREs are embedded in the large-scale, long period intense rainfall activities during the summer monsoon period.

Following a unified approach, an objective criterion has been developed for the determination of yearwise onset and withdrawal dates of the summer monsoon over the 19 subregions across India.

While occurrences of water bodies (rivers and canals;reservoirs, tanks and ponds; beels, oxbow lakes and derelict water; and brackish water) across the country depend upon physiographic settings and rainfall conditions, the recharging of the water