Characterization, quantification and monitoring of biodiversity have been among the major challenges in biodiversity conservation. Until recently, spatial ecological database in India was almost non-existent. There is need of a robust and quality database of the biological diversity at species, community, ecosystem and landscape levels for identification of vulnerable ecosystems and risk species. In order to have a national level database on the spatial distribution of

Forests have been the key element in maintaining sustainability of many global phenomena. Human dependency on forests is both necessary and unavoidable and hence degradation of this natural resource is inevitable. The study aims to understand the change dynamics over past few decades in the Shimla district, using remote sensing and GIS based techniques.

Hydrological modelling of large river catchments is a challenging task for water resources engineers due to its complexity in collecting and handling of both spatial and non-spatial data such as rainfall, gauge discharges, and topographic parameters.