Groundwater in the carbonate aquifers of the southern Andhra Pradesh, India has approached to stress level as water table has declined due to increasing groundwater draft, low to moderate rainfall, less availability or absence of surface water sources and semi-arid climate. In Kallugotla watershed of Kurnool district, groundwater is overexploited for irrigation and static water level exhibit declining trend. In order to manage the aquifers for sustainable water supply, understanding and accurate assessment of groundwater recharge is necessary.

Excess fluoride in groundwater-based drinking water supply is a growing concern in semi-arid tropical (SAT) regions of India. More than 16 states in India are facing the fluorosis problem. Several southern-peninsular states are experiencing monsoon climate condition, where the rainwater is harvested through tanks and used for agriculture.

This article describes the estimation of natural recharge and determination of aquifer parameters of a watershed located in coastal belt around Tuticorin town, Tamil Nadu, India, using radioactive tracer and pumping test methods. Recharge measurements were made at several spots to weathered gneiss, shale limestone, quartzite and coastal alluvium formations using tritium injection technique.