The 2015 smoke haze episode was one of the most severe and prolonged transboundary air pollution events ever seen in Southeast Asia (SEA), affecting the air quality of several countries within the region including Indonesia, Malaysia and Singapore. The 24 h mean outdoor PM2.5 (particulate matter (PM) with aerodynamic diameter ≤ 2.5 μm) concentrations ranged from 72–157 μg m−3 in Singapore during this episode, exceeding the WHO 24 h mean PM2.5 guidelines (25 μg m−3) several times over.

This paper reviews theoretical and empirical literature that originated predominantly during and after TRIPS, focusing on the influence of changes in patent protection on developing countries. Previous studies identify two channels of gain for developing countries, from strong patent rights. Firstly, the promotion channel whereby, patent rights affect innovativeness of the South and concomitantly its economic growth. Theoretical studies do not give unambiguous hypotheses concerning the influence of patent protection on domestic innovation leaving it for empirical investigation.