Due to its arid to semi-arid climate, water is the single most constraining factor to Pakistani agriculture. Water resources are heavily appropriated for productive uses, and agriculture is the main user of water resources. Over eighty percent of crop value comes from irrigated agriculture.

Vietnam is likely to be among the countries hardest hit by climate
change, mainly through rising sea levels and changes in rainfall and
temperatures. Agriculture can be extensively affected by climate
change, and designing effective adaptation strategies will be critical
for maintaining food security, rural employment, and foreign exchange

This paper combined a hydro-crop model with a dynamic general equilibrium (DCGE) model to assess the impacts of climate variability and change on economic growth and poverty reduction in Zambia.

Two possible adaptation options to climate change for Sub-Saharan Africa are analyzed under the SRES B2 scenario. The first scenario doubles the irrigated area in Sub-Saharan Africa by 2050, compared to the baseline, but keeps total crop area constant. The second scenario increases both rainfed and irrigated crop yields by 25 percent for all Sub-Saharan African countries.