The evolution of land–atmosphere–ocean models has resulted in the need for hydrologic models applicable to large areas and river basins. Such developments offer new challenges and opportunities for hydrologists to understand the hydrologic response of areas as large as continents. In the present study, the ability of variable infiltration capacity (VIC) hydrological model has been studied to assess run-off potential and other hydrological components for entire India.

The most important practical and critical problem related to the performance of reservoirs is the estimation of storage capacity loss due to sedimentation process. The problem to be addressed is to estimate the rate of sediment deposition and the period of time at which the sediment would interfere with the useful functioning of a reservoir.