PM2.5 concentrations were measured in residential indoor environment in slums of central India during 2012–2013. In addition, a suite of chemical components including metals (Al, K, Ca, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Cd, Pb, Mo, Se, Sb, Na, Mg, K and Hg), ions (Na+, Mg2+, K+, Ca2+, F−, Cl−, NH4+, NO3− and SO42−) and carbon (OC and EC) were analyzed for all samples. Indoor PM2.5 concentrations were found to be several folds higher than the 24-h national ambient air quality standard (60 µg/m3) for PM2.5 in India, and the concentrations were found to vary from season to season.

Chronic renal failure (CRF) associated with elevated dietary cadmium (Cd) among farming communities in the irrigated agricultural area under the River Mahaweli diversion scheme has reached a significantly higher level of 9,000 patients.

The increase in the number of chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients from the north central region of Sri Lanka has become a environmental health issue of national concern. Unlike in other countries where long-standing diabetes and hypertension are the leading causes of renal diseases, the majority of CKD patients from this part of Sri Lanka do not show any identifiable cause.