Advances in reverse osmosis membrane technology for seawater desalination have significantly driven down capital and operating cost.

Ultraviolet (UV) technology has been marketed as a purifier to disinfect contaminated drinking water for many years. Low pressure mercury lamps have a very strong UV emission at 254 nanometers.

Climate change, increasing demands on water due to global urbanization and the legal obligations under the EU's Water Framework Directive are making the water sector an attractive place for technologies that can help reduce costs and contribute to reducing the effects of climate change.

The article highlights basic UV disinfection concepts with discussions of considerations taken when comparing UV and other alternatives for wastewater disinfection.

A primary limitation in applying Reverse Osmosis (RO) is loss of performance caused by membrane fouling resulting from compounds that bacteria can use as energy or nutrient sources. When these compounds enter RO membranes, they are capable of sustaining extensive bacterial growths on the membrane sheets as well as within feed channel spacers.

Control mechanism of algal growth.

When a world-class casino, hotel and spa resort in California wanted to build an efficient and easy to operate wastewater treatment plant, it chose an innovative technology that could handle high-strength wastewater from the hotel and the large weekly variations in flows and loadings.

The disinfection of potable water is almost universally accomplished by the use of chlorine compounds and several chlorine-related compounds for water disinfection can be found.

Agencies engaged in treating & supplying drinking water are responsible to find suitable method of treatment to make the water potable.

Luckily for irrigators, we are not limited to the use of pure water only. With modern advancements in technology, salt and brackish water is being treated to the point where it can be used for irrigation. The cost per 1000 gallons can be substantial.