Using Landsat data at decadal interval (1980-2013), the glacier fluctuations (glacier area, equilibrium line altitude and specific mass balance) of nine benchmark glaciers in Kashmir Himalaya was estimated. The observed changes were related with topographic and climatic variables in order to understand their influence. From the data analysis, it was observed that the glaciers have shrunk by 17%, ELA has shifted upwards (80-300 m), and SMB shows variation in glacier mass loss from -0.77 to -0.16 m.w.e.

Flood hazard is one of the most severe problems in the Himalayan river basins. Although floods are essentially hydrological phenomenon, the uneven distribution of floods in the river basin highlights the control of geomorphological and geological factors. A proper understanding of these factors is critical for a successful flood management programme. Remote sensing data is of immense value in evaluating the geomorphological and geological controls in flooding. The present paper highlights the control of geomorphology and neotectonics on flood hazard in north Bihar Plains, eastern India.