The opium trade yielded enormous profits to the British imperialists during the nineteenth century and the first half of the twentieth century.

The problem of water availability was a pivotal facet of daily life, particularly in urban areas, where it had to be made perennially obtainable in large quantities. Thus, apart from river water, artificial water reservoirs of massive proportions, and also step wells were constructed on a great scale in most parts of the country.

The physical formatting of a city is done not by accident but by definite purposes and logic that its dominant groups intend to transcribe in space. The Portuguese, who developed Goa as their seat in Asia, transferred a large set of meanings of power into its urban space by resorting to architectural process as a language of domination.

The rural world of nineteenth-century Tamil Nadu was highly diversified in terms of land control and ownership. Academic efforts have largely focused on the various claims to

The complexities associated with interactions of various components of environment have not been examined in historical narratives of pre-colonial India.