Open-pit mine is still an unavoidable activity but can become unsustainable without the restoration of degraded sites. Monitoring the restoration after extractive activities is a legal requirement for mine companies and public administrations in many countries, involving financial provisions for environmental liabilities.

Order of the Supreme Court of India in the matter of Common Cause Vs Union of India & Others dated 16/01/2019 regarding deleterious effect of mining on vegetation of the area. Mining results in a complete elimination of grass in the area which results in denial of fodder to herbivores.

Order of the Supreme Court of India in the matter of Neelambar Baba & Others Vs Union of India & Others dated 27/03/2018 regarding stoppage of illegal stone mining, crushing and blasting activities in illegal manner and for the preservation and protection of the Braj region, forests, hills and its wildlife in the above said region and also to restore the Braj region for its cultural and historical importance as an eco-tourism destination.

Judgement of the National Green Tribunal (Southern Zone, Chennai) in the matter of Joy Kaitharnath Vs Kerala Minerals and Metals Ltd. dated 31/08/2017 regarding discharge of effluents by Kerala Minerals and Metals Limited (KMML) into the waterbodies of Chavara, Kollam District. The Applicant (Joy Kaitharnath, General Secretary, State Human Rights Protection Centre) has requested the Government of Kerala to constitute an Expert Team to assess the status and trend of radioactivity and its impact on health and environment in Chavara black sand area.

An Act to reform the law on regulation and management of mining activities in the country for long term development of mining sector, building global value chain, ensuring broad-based ownership, achieving economy of scale of mines, enhancing transparency and accountability, and ensure environment-friendly and socially responsible mining.

Order of the National Green Tribunal in the matter of Shantanu Sharma Vs Union of India & Others dated 24/08/2016 regarding the use of fly ash as land fill to reclaim low lying areas including backfilling in abandoned mines or pitheads.

Christmas Island has been mined for rock phosphate for over 100 years, and as mining will finish in the next few decades there is a need to develop alternative economies on the island, such as high value crop production. However, to conserve the unique flora and fauna on the island, only land previously mined will be considered for this purpose. As these soils have been severely perturbed by mining, strategies to improve soil quality parameters need to be undertaken before plant based industries can be considered.

Recolonisation of soil by macrofauna (especially ants, termites and earthworms) in rehabilitated open-cut mine sites is inevitable and, in terms of habitat restoration and function, typically of great value. In these highly disturbed landscapes, soil invertebrates play a major role in soil development (macropore configuration, nutrient cycling, bioturbation, etc.) and can influence hydrological processes such as infiltration, seepage, runoff generation and soil erosion.

From 2010-2013, integrated health and environmental responses addressed an unprecedented epidemic lead poisoning in Zamfara State, northern Nigeria. Artisanal gold mining caused widespread contamination resulting in the deaths of more than 400 children. Socio-economic, logistic, and security challenges required remediation and medical protocols within the context of local resources, labor practices, and cultural traditions.

Original Source

The Ministry of Mines has prepared the base paper for National Mineral Exploration Policy (Non-Fuel and Non-Coal Minerals) for enabling auction of the mineral concessions as provided under the MMDR Amendment Act, 2015.

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