Assessing the costs of adaptation to climate change: a review of the UNFCCC and other recent estimates

This report takes another look at the costs of adapting to climate change. The estimates for 2030 used by the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change are likely to be substantial under-estimates. This report look at the estimates from a range
of perspectives, and conclude that: the current cost assessments do not include some key sectors, such as ecosystems, energy, manufacturing, retailing, and tourism; some of the sectors included have been only partially covered in cost estimates; the additional costs of adaptation have sometimes been calculated as