Budgeting for NDC action: initial lessons from four climate-vulnerable countries
This working paper addresses the following question: are climate change-related expenditures starting to appear in national budgets to secure the early implementation of countries’ Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs)? It examines the evidence of resourcing NDC policies and actions in four sub-Saharan African countries – Ethiopia, Ghana, Kenya and Uganda – that are known to be vulnerable to the impacts of climate change. These are all non-Annex I Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). The paper first examines the level of spending that passes through the countries’ national budgets for those ministries that play a leadership role in the sectors considered strategic to implementing the NDCs. Significant discrepancies exist between these ministry budget estimates and actual spending in the countries reviewed, raising questions over the potential for speedy implementation of new and additional climate change-related programmes.