This brief examines estimates produced by several recent model simulations and frameworks that focus on the cost of ending hunger as well as progress toward other development goals—estimates that range from US$7 billion to US$265 billion per year.

West African countries are projected to continue the substantial macroeconomic growth observed in recent decades. Many will enter middle-income status by 2030, and more will do so by 2050. The dynamism observable now in many rural areas will accelerate as towns grow and villages link to them through roads, power, and people who travel.

Climate change is a significant and growing threat to food security—already affecting vulnerable populations in many developing countries, and expected to affect ever more people in more places, unless action is taken beginning today.