G20 nations have almost tripled the subsidies they give to coal-fired power plants in recent years, despite the urgent need to cut the carbon emissions driving the climate crisis. The bloc of major economies pledged a decade ago to phase out all fossil fuel subsidies.

This issue brief takes a detailed look at why such a large share of coal power is struggling today and the drivers—including subsidies—that may cause similar crises to rear their heads in future.

A shift away from using fossil fuels is a key enabler for the low-carbon transition necessary to achieve climate goals, but delivering this transformation has widespread repercussions across local communities. A just transition – one that captures a social, environmental and economic approach – is crucial.