Conservation of natural resources by traditional societies across the globe seems to have arisen out of the age-old practice of animistic religious belief systems. Such belief systems are fundamental aspects of people’s culture, which strongly conditions their use of natural resources.

Climate change is one of the most important global environmental challenges that affect all the natural ecosystems of the world. Due to the fragile environment, mountain ecosystems are the most vulnerable to the impact of climate change. Mountains have been recognized as important ecosystems by the Convention on Biological Diversity. Arunachal Pradesh is a predominantly mountainous state and is home to many endemic, endangered and threatened species, as well as to the indigenous people, who are dependent on its biological resources.

Water is an essential natural resource for human and living organisms. We use water for various purposes like drinking, cleaning, agriculture practices, transportation, etc. It is the prime resource for the
hydel power station, providing electricity for domestic, industrial and commercial purposes.