The impacts of tobacco cultivation on traditional agro-practices and knowledge, food security, agro-biodiversity and socio-economic conditions of a remote hilly tribal community of Bangladesh were investigated. Sixty per cent households were found practicing shifting cultivation compared with 10 yrs back changing local food availability. Local crop varieties were being lost due to low cultivation and weak seed preservation system. Despite better benefits from traditional cultivation, 90% people now fully depended upon tobacco cultivation for significant cash flow at a time.

In Bangladesh, due to population pressure, deforestation and changes in landuse patterns, many species of both flora and fauna have become extinct and many more are threatened and endangered. In addition, the country will face serious consequences of biodiversity loss from the global climate change.