This report reviews the status of water resources and climate trends, and their expected impacts on water-related hazards and associated risks in South Asia, one of the world’s regions most vulnerable to climate change. The monsoon-driven climate combines intense rainfall generating devastating floods that alternate with extensive dry periods.

Springs are the major source of freshwater in many small mountainous watersheds within the Himalayan region. In recent years, their flow rates have diminished, but the reasons for this are not self-evident. This paper reviews the methods that investigate the hydrology of springs, with a focus on the Himalayan region.

The Noyyal sub-basin, which is 3510 sq km in area, is part of the Cauvery basin that lies in the state of Tamil Nadu. It is a rapidly urbanizing sub-basin that includes the Class I cities of Coimbatore and Tiruppur as well as 84 smaller urban settlements.