Anemia and malaria constitute major health problems worldwide, especially in tropical countries with low resources (WHO, 2008a, 2008b; Black et al., 2003). Although there are several potential causes of anemia, iron deficiency constitutes approximately half of all cases (WHO, 2008a, 2008b). Other important causal factors include parasitic infections such as malaria or helminth infections, hemoglobinopathies and G6PD deficiency, traumatic childbirth, as well as other nutritional deficiencies (WHO/UNICEF/UNU, 2001).

Plasmodium falciparum malaria is a deadly pathogen. The invasion of red blood cells (RBCs) by merozoites is a target for vaccine development. Although anti-merozoite antibodies can block invasion in vitro, there is no efficacy in vivo. To explain this discrepancy we hypothesized that complement activation could enhance RBC invasion by binding to the complement receptor 1 (CR1).

Environmental enteropathy (EE) is a subclinical enteric condition found in low-income countries that is characterized by intestinal inflammation, reduced intestinal absorption, and gut barrier dysfunction. The researchers aimed to assess if EE impairs the success of oral polio and rotavirus vaccines in infants in Bangladesh. 

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Small cell lung cancer (SCLC) comprises approximately 15–18% of all lung cancers worldwide. SCLC is the most aggressive subtype of lung cancer and is characterized by rapid doubling time, high growth fraction, and early widespread metastasis. Despite high response rates to initial treatment, SCLC usually relapses and becomes refractory to treatment within one year. The median survival is 14–20 months for limited SCLC and 9–11 months for extensive SCLC. These statistics highlight the need for new tools to aid in diagnosis and prevention.

Obesity is not a homogeneous condition across individuals since about 25–40% of obese individuals can maintain healthy status with no apparent signs of metabolic complications. The simple anthropometric measure of body mass index does not always reflect the biological effects of excessive body fat on health, thus additional molecular characterizations of obese phenotypes are needed to assess the risk of developing subsequent metabolic conditions at an individual level.