Small hydropower (SHP) being most reliable and environmentally benign energy technology or electricity generation plays an important role in development of a region/nation. Major portion of hydropower potential in India lies in Himalayan region.

Trends in annual peak inflow into Ukai reservoirs, Gujarat has been detected using innovative trend analysis methodology recently proposed, which is independent of the trend in time-series, pre-assigned significance level, magnitude of trend, sample size and the amount of variation within the time series.

Weirs are engineering structures often used in irrigation, sewer networks and flood protection works. Sharp-crested weirs are the simplest form of over-flow spillway that commonly used to determine the flow rate in hydraulic laboratories, industry and irrigation systems, where highly accurate discharge measurements are needed.

Subarnarekha multi-purpose river valley project is an interstate project which would benefit Jharkhand, Odisha and West Bengal. The head works i.e., Chandil Dam, Ichha Dam and Galudihi Barrage are located in Jharkhand to provide irrigation both to Odisha and Jharkhand, power to Jharkhand and flood control in West Bengal and Odisha.


India has made a long journey in the field of irrigation by raising the irrigation coverage from 22.6 million ha in 1951 to 100 million ha in 2005. Consequently the food-grain production was raised from 50 million tons to 210 tons in above period. However from the past experience, it is seen that, construction of dam attracts a series of environmental problems in two distinct areas i.e., upstream of dam and downstream of dam.

The design of overhead lines (new lines, uprating or refurbishment) in the deregulated environment is critical to the competiveness and profitability of the utility company. Should, for example, the design limit the power transfer to levels, which prohibit sales of MW at peak periods, the losses can be enormous. This fact, as well as the limitations imposed on capital expenditure, make the optimisation of line design a critical activity.

Grout material in recent years has made quantum advancement and researchers have made this material more application friendly. Grouts are finding increasing applications for checking seepage under dams and in repair work for old dams.

Dam building activity in India got impetus and priority, after India became Independent. Total dams built in India up to year 2002 were about 4050. Maharashtra state has the largest number of large dams in India.

This paper deals with two methods of obtaining 50Hz sinusoidal voltage waveform of constant amplitude same as the amplitude of grid voltage from a variable amplitude variable frequency sinusoidal voltage waveform so that a variable speed wind turbine generator can be joined to grid.