Aggregate effect of the intended nationally determined contributions: an update

This synthesis report on the aggregate effect of the 161 intended nationally determined contributions (INDCs) communicated by 189 Parties by 4 April 2016 provides estimates of the aggregate greenhouse gas emission levels in 2025 and 2030 resulting from the implementation of those INDCs. Those levels are compared with the emission levels in 1990, 2000 and 2010 as well as with emission trajectories consistent with (1) action communicated by Parties for the pre-2020 period and (2) holding the average global temperature rise below 2 ºC and 1.5 ºC above pre-industrial levels. This document identifies and discusses trends that indicate opportunities for enhanced action to address climate change in the longer term. In addition, it synthesizes information relating to adaptation, which was included in the INDCs communicated by 137 Parties.