In December 2015, the Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change (MoEFCC) notified emission standards for limiting Sulphur Oxides (SOx), Nitrogen Oxides (NOx), Particulate Matter (PM) and Mercury (Hg) emissions in coal-based Thermal Power Plants (TPPs). As of December 2017 (the deadline for meeting these standards), compliance was poor.

As a large developing country, India’s challenge is to meet its development aspirations in a carbon-constrained world.