In India, around three lakh children die of water-borne diseases every year, with diarrhoea alone causing more than 50 per cent of the deaths. Despite the primary sources of water in the country—groundwater and surface water—being highly contaminated, only 32 per cent of the Indian households get water from a treated source.

Climate change increases strain on agriculture systems through changes in the magnitude, distribution, and timing of rainfall; rise in temperature; and an increase in the frequency of extreme weather events. In Karnataka, agriculture is the key contributing sector for the state’s economy.

The Southern Region (SR) leads renewable energy (RE) deployment in India, having an installed capacity of about 43 GW as of December 2020. Recognising the immense RE potential of this region, the Ministry of New and Renewable Energy (MNRE), Government of India, has set an ambitious RE target of 59 GW for SR by 2022.

The Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change (MoEFCC), Government of India, launched the National Clean Air Programme (NCAP), which proposes strategies to reduce air pollution. The NCAP identifies 122 non-attainment Indian cities [cities that violate the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS)].

India plans to add 100 GW of solar electric power generation by 2022 to an existing system (with an installed capacity of close to 330 GW, as on January 2018, from all sources). Selection of sites for such a large infrastructure investment is definitely an important decision.

Karnataka signed up for UDAY Scheme in June 2016 with an objective of improving operational efficiency of its DISCOMs. As per the scheme, Karnataka has a target of reducing its aggregate technical and commercial (AT&C) loss to 14.2% by FY19. The Karnataka DISCOMs seem to have brought down their AT&C loss over the last five years.

Karnataka signed up for UDAY Scheme in June 2016 with an objective of improving operational efficiency of its DISCOMs. As per the scheme, Karnataka has a target of reducing its aggregate technical and commercial (AT&C) loss to 14.2% by FY19. The Karnataka DISCOMs seem to have brought down their AT&C loss over the last five years.

India, through the Paris Climate Agreement in 2015, made a commitment to reduce its emissions intensity of GDP (kg CO2/INR) by 33–35% in 2030, over the 2005 levels (GoI, 2015).

India announced its Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs) at the Conference of Parties (CoP) meeting in Paris, 2015.

In December 2015, the Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change (MoEFCC) notified emission standards for limiting Sulphur Oxides (SOx), Nitrogen Oxides (NOx), Particulate Matter (PM) and Mercury (Hg) emissions in coal-based Thermal Power Plants (TPPs). As of December 2017 (the deadline for meeting these standards), compliance was poor.

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