Climate adaptation is best implemented when there is a scientifically grounded evidence base, such as climate risk assessments, to direct adaptation efforts. However, the complexity of adaptation is not reflected in any of the current risk assessment methods.

The solar photovoltaic industry is witnessing a remarkable expansion worldwide. India is ranked fourth globally in ground-mounted photovoltaic deployment. While this is impressive, the waste resulting from such end-of-life photovoltaic panels is expected to be enormous at 4.5 million tonnes by 2050, as per our estimates.

The growth of the Indian petrochemical industry can be made sustainable only by mitigating the emissions from it. This study examines the decarbonisation potential of India’s petrochemical sector until 2050 through low- or zero-emission technologies.

Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions are a direct cause of human-induced climate change. India accounted for 2.9 billion tonnes of CO2 emissions in 2019. The transportation sector accounts for roughly 10% or 290 million tonnes of CO2 emissions per year.

Jharkhand is a mineral-rich state in India. Its cities have access to various solid fuels and proximity to several heavy industries. These factors, along with the movement of traffic (public and goods), contribute to air pollution in the state.

Novel and viable alternatives are warranted to achieve the 500 GW renewable energy target for 2030. Agrivoltaics (agriPV) is one such promising technology for optimising land usage by combining agriculture with PV. A major challenge in terms of the implementation of agriPV is the development of suitable business models.

Strategically placed sensors can monitor air pollution and provide a detailed picture of air quality and its variability within a region. Low-cost sensors (LCSs) that measure PM2.5 are becoming increasingly popular because of their low cost, ease of use, and portability.

The impacts of climate variability, climate change, and extreme events are visible globally and in India. The Global Climate Risk Index 2021 ranks India seventh, considering the extent to which India has been affected by the impacts of weather-related loss events (storms, floods, heatwaves, etc.).

Meeting India’s short- and long-term climate commitments made at COP26 entails a complete economic transformation, which can have considerable developmental tradeoffs.

Regulatory air pollution monitoring in India is mostly limited to urban areas. Without a dense network of monitors, it is difficult to capture the fine spatial variations of PM2.5, one of the major pollutants with severe implications for human health.