The Western Ghats is one of the world’s most heavily populated biodiversity hotspots providing for and supporting 400 million people. However, these diverse freshwater ecosystems face many threats because of untrammelled economic development.

Biodiversity within inland water ecosystems in the Eastern Himalaya region is both highly diverse and of great regional importance to livelihoods and economies. However, development activities are not always compatible with the conservation of this diversity, and the ecosystem requirements of biodiversity are frequently not considered in the development planning process.

Today, climate change is the most potentially dangerous
environmental threat facing human beings and other life forms. The impact of climate change will be particularly severe in the tropical areas such as South Asia. South Asian countries already face tremendous pressure due to increased population growth, urbanization, industrialization and other economic developments.