The emissions reductions from the adoption of a new transportation technology depend on the emissions from the new technology relative to those from the displaced technology. Evaluate the emissions reductions from electric vehicles (EVs) by identifying which vehicles would have been purchased had EVs not been available.

Energy efficiency standards based on product attributes may interact with market conditions and affect the overall stringency of the standards. In this paper analyze the interaction between gasoline prices and the redesigned and tightened federal fuel economy standards.