Domestic animals contaminate recreational waters and drinking-water sources with excreta and pathogens; but this threat to public health is inadequately understood and is insufficiently addressed in regulations. More than 85% of the world’s faecal wastes is from domestic animals such as poultry, cattle, sheep and pigs.

This document summarizes the most recent water-related findings on global health impacts; presents recent information on effective interventions; summarizes information from economic evaluations; and describes recent insights on financing. The global health impacts presented are based on both rigorous assessments (for diarrhoea, trachoma, schistosomiasis and intestinal nematode infections) and reviews of expert opinion (all other addressed diseases).