Domestic animals contaminate recreational waters and drinking-water sources with excreta and pathogens; but this threat to public health is inadequately understood and is insufficiently addressed in regulations. More than 85% of the world’s faecal wastes is from domestic animals such as poultry, cattle, sheep and pigs.

This document provides guidance for managing water supplies in buildings where people may drink water and use water for food preparation; wash, shower, swim or use water for other recreational activities; or be exposed to aerosols produced by water-using devices, such as cooling towers. It is intended to be a useful resource for training and information material.


Globally, around 2.4 million deaths (4.2% of all deaths) could be prevented annually if everyone practised appropriate hygiene and had good, reliable sanitation and drinking water. These deaths are mostly of children in developing countries from diarrhoea and subsequent malnutrition, and from other diseases attributable to malnutrition.

This report presents the findings of research into the projected impact of climate change on water and sanitation services by 2020 and by 2030. These time horizons are relevant to investment decision-making and have been used in other water-using

This document deals specifically with essential environmental health standards required for health-care settings in medium- and low-resource countries to: assess prevailing situations and plan the improvements that are required; develop and reach essential safety standards as a first goal; and support the development and application of national policies. It contains guidelines for setting standards of safety conditions to provide adequate health care.

All-or-nothing targets for global access to basic amenities such as drinking water and sanitation are outdated. The time has come for a more fluid approach. March 20, 2008