Heightened sensitivity and concerted action in the judiciary, legal profession and civil society have helped to create an expanded notion of access to justice and to foster the phenomenon of Public Interest Litigation. PIL has become a common feature in cases concerning development, environment and human rights, which have closely linked jurisprudence in Sri Lanka.

The French National Assembly adopted the Charter for the Environment in 2004 and integrated it into the Constitution of the French Fifth Republic by the amendment of March 1, 2005.

The ESA (Endangered Species Act) has provided a mechanism for challenges to hydroelectric power projects in the courts when an endangered or threatened species is put at risk by dam development.

If the United States Supreme Court grants certiorari in a case between Mississippi and Tenessee, the court will have its first opportunity to determine if and how transboundary aquifers should be regulated. The applications of this case are far from surface level.

China's rapid economic growth over the last two decades has brought numerous environmental problems. Today, China contains seven of the ten most pollluted cities in the world and is now the second largest source of carbon dioxide emissions, behind the United States.

Over the past few years, the U.S. carbon offset market has experienced tremendous growth. This expansion can be attributed to several factors, including the creation of regional greenhouse gas initiatives, the anticipation of federal regulation, and growing public concern regarding climate change.