A central concept in the report is that of the integrated landscape investment portfolio.This is a set of investments across sectors that contribute to landscape-scale objectives as defined through an integrated landscape management (ILM) process.

Climate-smart agriculture’ is a term that has emerged since 2010 to describe agricultural systems designed to simultaneously improve food security and rural livelihoods and support climate change adaptation and mitigation efforts. Meeting the financing requirements for climate-smart agriculture implementation will be a significant challenge.

To date, land use related climate policy and programs have tended to separate forestry and agriculture. In reality, the interface between these sectors is highly diverse and dynamic.