More than 2 billion people globally are living in countries with excess water stress says the Sustainable Development Goals report 2017. Northern Africa and Western Asia, as well as Central and Southern Asia, experience water stress levels above 60 per cent, indicating the strong probability of future water scarcity.

India and China will see highest urban population rise in the next 40 years according to this 2011 revision of UN World Urbanisation Prospects & warns that this poses challenges of providing jobs, housing, energy and infrastructure to prevent urban poverty.