This report fulfils the requirements of Deliverable 3.6.1 within work package 3.6 of the PREPARED Enabling change project (EC Seventh Framework Programme Theme 6). The report evaluates existing methods applied to quantify and reduce uncertainty in models applied to UWS, and in other related fields.

Manual scavenging is manual removal of excreta (night soil) from “dry toilets”, i.e., toilets without the modern flush system. Manual scavenging involves the removal of human excreta using brooms and tin plates. The excreta are piled into baskets which scavengers carry on their heads to locations sometimes several kilometers from the latrines.

The Objectives of the City Sanitation Plan in Shimla are: To adopt a demand-based strategy and community participation in planning, implementation and management of sanitation infrastructure; To adopt locally suitable methods, technologies and materials, and provide necessary facilitation support to the Municipal Corporation; To encourage commu

Over the coming years the economic importance of water will continue to increase for a number of reasons:  Global demand for water is soaring.

A clogged sewerage system and a massive rise in the water table from a depth of about 40 to 50 feet to a mere four to five feet are now posing a major threat to buildings in several parts of East Delhi, Urban Development and Finance Minister A.K.

The Union urban development ministry has approved a major interceptor sewer project for the Yamuna under the Jawaharlal Nehru National Urban Renewal Mission (JNNURM). The Rs 1,358 crore interceptor project, which is the largest ever under JNNURM for Delhi, aims to trap untreated sewer in Najafgarh and Shahadra drains.

Climate change is expected to affect the capacity and operations of existing water and sanitation infrastructure and services.

THE long-time dream of residents for an underground drainage system in Tambaram got a step closer to reality on Tuesday with the laying of the foundation stone by Tambaram MLA SR Raja and municipal chairman E Mani.

K. Lakshmi

For all multi-storeyed and special buildings

320 multi-storeyed buildings were asked to install under pilot project seven months ago

Special buildings, which have three floors, have been included

Mumbai Amid continuing water crisis in Mumbai, the Brihanmumbai Municipal Corporation (BMC) is all set to use recycled sewer water to turn the city greener. In a first-of-its- kind project, the civic body will use recycled sewer water to create greenery at Gorai and Deonar dumping grounds. It also plans to sell the water to city malls for maintaining its gardens and for non-potable purposes.