The Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme (MGNREGS) is India’s flagship social protection programme. This paper is part of a series of studies that analyse how MGNREGS builds and strengthens the resilience of rural households to different climate shocks.

Climate financing by the world’s largest multilateral development banks (MDBs) in developing countries and emerging economies rose to an all-time high of $43.1 billion in 2018, boosting projects that help developing countries cut emissions and address climate risks.

The frequency of natural disasters, especially storms and floods, has been increasing globally over the last several decades. Developing countries are especially vulnerable to such disasters but are often the least capable of coping with the associated impacts because of their limited adaptive capacity.

This report sets out recommendations on how the main sustainable finance initiatives underway can support a major reduction in disaster risk. The scale of financial flows and investments is massive. In Europe assets under management reached €25.2 trillion in 2017, 147% of GDP .

This report presents the case for a "subsidy swap"—reallocating some of the savings from fossil fuel subsidy reform to fund the clean energy transition. Fossil fuel to clean energy subsidy swaps are already taking place.

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