This full version of the IPCC Fifth Assessment Report Climate Change 2014: Impacts, Adaptation, and Vulnerability released on 16 October 2014 provides the most comprehensive look to date at the widespread impacts and risks of climate change and the opportunities for response.

There has been an evolution in the treatment of regional aspects of climate change in IPCC reports from a patchwork of case examples in early assessments toward recent attempts at a more systematic coverage of regional issues at continental and subcontinental scales. Key topics requiring a regional treatment include changes in the climate itself and in other aspects of the climate system such as cryosphere, oceans, sea level and atmospheric composition, climate change impacts on natural resource sectors and on human activities and infrastructure, factors determining adaptive capacity for adjusting to these impacts, emissions of greenhouse gases and aerosols and their cycling through the Earth system, and human responses to climate change through mitigation and adaptation.