Heavy-duty vehicles in China: cost-effectiveness of fuel-efficiency and CO2 reduction technologies for long‑haul tractor‑trailers in the 2025–2030 timeframe

China is considering options for increasing fuel efficiency and reduce CO2 emissions from freight transportation. This study assesses the future costs of existing and emerging technologies to reduce fuel consumption and CO2 emissions of long‑haul tractor‑trailers in China. Economic impact metrics are investigated, including investment payback period, first-owner and full lifetime fuel savings, and the marginal cost associated with various technology packages under a range of economic assumptions.