Finds that for cars, the cost for meeting a 2025 target value of 70 g/km (as measured in the New European Driving Cycle - NEDC) is between 250 and 500 euros higher than would be the case in a footprint-based CO2 target system.

Analyzes emerging vehicle-efficiency technologies with respect to cost and capacity to lower carbon emissions from passenger cars and light-duty trucks in the 2025–2030 time frame.