Efficiency technology and cost assessment for U.S. 2025–2030 light-duty vehicles

Analyzes emerging vehicle-efficiency technologies with respect to cost and capacity to lower carbon emissions from passenger cars and light-duty trucks in the 2025–2030 time frame. The paper builds on the modeling and peer-reviewed research underlying the Technical Assessment Report of the EPA and the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration for the midterm review of the US passenger vehicle greenhouse-gas emission regulation. It incorporates subsequent industry research and new modeling of advanced vehicle technologies, such as cylinder deactivation, high-compression Atkinson-cycle engines, lightweighting, and mild hybridization. On that expanded evidence base, it updates the EPA's and NHTSA's technology and cost assessments for 2025, and projects those cost and innovation trends out to 2030.