Large cardamom (Amomum subulatum) is an important cash crop and livelihood option for people in Sikkim. This high-value, minimally labour-intensive, and non-perishable crop is cultivated as an understory perennial crop in association with Himalayan alder (Alnus nepalensis) and other forest tree species that provide shade.

The ecosystem services derived from conservation areas have a high value for human well being, but they do not receive due consideration in public policy in the Hindu Kush Himalayan region. As a result, conservation areas do not receive adequate public support for participatory management and other approaches.

This publication presents 15 case studies solicited by ICIMOD during the International Year of Biodiversity 2010. ICIMOD called for case studies from the Hindu Kush Himalayan (HKH) region on initiatives dealing with mountain biodiversity, with a focus on success stories. Twenty-eight case studies were received from most countries in the region.

Around half of the world’s population depends directly or indirectly on mountain resources for different products and services. Having a means for economic valuation of these services will help increase recognition of their value and provide a way of ensuring fair distribution of the costs and benefits of conservation and sustainable use of natural resources.

Mountains are amongst the most vulnerable and hazardous environments in the world: they also harbour rich repositories of biodiversity. Water and other natural resources are supplied to the lowlands through ecosystem services. Some of the world

The International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development (ICIMOD) undertook a series of research activities together with partners in the Eastern Himalayas from 2007 to 2008 to provide a preliminary assessment of the impacts and vulnerability of this region to climate change.

In this latest report ICIMOD has highlighted the vulnerability of the Eastern Himalayan ecosystems to climate change as a result of their ecological fragility and economic marginality.

In this latest paper, ICIMOD provides a concerted review of climate change assessment with specific focus on biodiversity impact areas on the mountain ecosystems of the Eastern Himalayas.

Around the world, the old paradigm,

In the Himalayas, subsistence largely depends upon resources derived from natural forests due to the free and easy access to these and simplicity in their use. Sikkim has 43% of its total geographical area under forest cover, of which 34% is under dense forests. The burgeoning human population and family fragmentation are exerting a tremendous pressure on the natural resources to meet the requirements of food, fuel, fodder, timber and other human needs. In recent years, tourism has increased manifolds in Sikkim, which has been one of the major factors behind destruction of forests.