The State of Maharashtra has been a pioneer in implementing fiscal instruments to address air pollution and climate change related issues. In the process, the State has also generated significant revenues that were supposed to be utilized towards vehicular pollution management, and promotion of renewable energy and energy efficiency measures.

Greenhouse gases (GHGs) and other pollutants are negative externalities imposing an external cost on the entire society and not just on the individuals who consume a certain product. Though India does not have an obligation to reduce the emissions of GHGs, it is important for Indian States to adopt a sustainable growth path.

This report concentrates on the impacts of sea level rise as a result of climate change on coastal infrastructure, ecosystems and land in the state of Tamil Nadu, India.

The Judiciary observes in the opening line of the judgement of the Supreme Court on CRZ pertaining to the Indian Council of Enviro-Legal action vs. Union of India 1996, that if the mere enactment of laws can ensure a clean environment, perhaps India would be pollution-free and opines that despite enactment of several laws the desired result has not been achieved due to their poor implementation.

This briefing note is the first of a 3-part series on the subject of pollution monitoring in India. The note will support the thematic online map on