It is well understood that the evolution of the Earth with its plurality of environmental elements is the resultant productmix of geological and biological processes coupled together. Any natural environment reflects an interactive dynamics
of mineralogy–biology–chemistry. Consequently, with temporal evolution, the milieu tends to change. Aquifers in the

This article describes biotechnological modes, updated in terms of environmental remediation while exploiting natural resources. Modern biotechnology embraces not only the principles of using various organisms but also the techniques of doing so. Both the aspects are dealt with in detail.

An evaluation of disasters in the form of landslides and floods is presented. The study has been carried out in the perspective of nonlinearity, chaos and the complexity of their management.

The disproportionate distribution of environmental risks among the population is known as environmental justice, environmental equity or at some instance environmental racism. All these terms in fact define the status that the poor suffer greater exposure to environmental pollution than other communities.