Respiratory infections are among the leading causes of death and disability globally. Respirable aerosol particles released by agricultural crop-residue burning (ACRB), practised by farmers in all global regions, are potentially harmful to human health.

The enduring equity-efficiency debate on India’s food policy revolves around two key issues—leakage of cereal grains from the system, and reduction in benefits at the extensive margin to reduce the fiscal burden. Using descriptive analysis and costing techniques, it is found that the public distribution system works well in regions with low market access, high cereal prices, and high poverty. It protects households from inflation through a price ceiling that automatically adjusts the value of the real implicit transfer. However, the biggest weakness is its one-size-fits-all approach.

Undernutrition imposes a staggering cost worldwide in terms of lives lost, forgone productivity, healthcare spending, and reduced lifetime earnings. In India, nutrition policies recognize the multifaceted nature of interventions necessary to accelerate progress in nutrition.