Climate-fragility risks are a major security challenge for Japan and the Asia-Pacific region. Japan can build on important lessons learned from other G7 countries such as Germany and the USA as well as its own experiences and significant strengths in fields such as Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR) to address these risks.

The study on adaptation effectiveness indicators has been carried out by the Institute for Global Environmental Strategies (IGES) in collaboration with national partners such as BCAS, ICIMOD and TERI in the Gangetic basin with the Strategic Environment Research fund of the Ministry of Environment, Government of Japan (S8).