As fuel and feedstock prices continue to rise, government entities continue to analyze the cause.

The fuel ethanol industry has evolved from its experimental beginnings in Brazil in the 1970s and the passionate advocacy of U.S. corn growers in to the mainstream to become a key part of the global energy menu.

The International Maritime Organization's (IMO) "Marpol Annex-6" limits on sulfur in ocean-ship bunker fuel and diesel engine emissions have made only a slight difference so far in the task of slashing diesel pollution in and near the world's ports, experts said. Yet technologies that could dramatically reduce diesel emissions from ocean vessels are now making significant progress.

Algae are quickly becoming the most attractive successor to traditional biofuels feedstocks like corn and soybeans, and even to next-generation feedstocks such as switchgrass and jatropha, Although algal biofuels are not yet being produced or consumed on a commercial scale, a number of companies are working their way toward doing exactly that, possibly as soon as 2010.

George Unzelman, has more than 50 years of refining experience and has been in the industry during some of its most dramatic changes-some predicted, some results of opposition. In an opinion editorial, Unzelman shares his observations and predictions moving forward.

Located 40 miles east of Yuma, Ariz., is a barren site that may become a landmark for U.S. oil refining - the location of the country's first newly built oil refinery since 1976.

Since its origins as a fuel blendstock in the 1980s, ethanol production in the United States has primarily been a creature of public policy.

Increased demand for ethanol and the financial participation of major lenders has sparked the construction of large production facilities outside the U.S. Midwest Corn Belt. Their new locations - deemed 'destination markets' - are closer to major markets for ethanol and its associated co-products.