Supply and sustainability of carbon offsets and alternative fuels for international aviation

International aviation produced an estimated 490.4 million tonnes (Mt) of carbon dioxide emissions in 2013, about 1.5% of global CO2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion that year, and as the role of aviation in the global economy expands, those emissions are expected to rise, to 682–755 Mt by 2020 and 1223–1376 Mt by 2035. The International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) has set a global aspirational goal that the industry’s growth from 2020 onward be “carbon neutral” in terms of net CO2 emissions. This paper focuses on two means to achieving this goal: the use of alternative fuels and a global Market-Based Measure (MBM) that would allow airlines to offset some of their emissions.