International aviation produced an estimated 490.4 million tonnes (Mt) of carbon dioxide emissions in 2013, about 1.5% of global CO2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion that year, and as the role of aviation in the global economy expands, those emissions are expected to rise, to 682–755 Mt by 2020 and 1223–1376 Mt by 2035.

This working paper examines the ideal role of city governments under a vertically integrated climate governance system designed to maximize urban mitigation potential. Action by city governments is essential for achieving deep reductions in global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions.

This paper, a contribution to the New Climate Economy project, examines how cities’ economic development strategies are likely to affect global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. City governments are increasingly taking an active role in economic development, working to attract and retain businesses.

An estimated 2.6 billion people rely on traditional biomass for home cooking and heating, so improving the efficiency of household cookstoves could provide significant environmental, social and economic benefits.