As governments around the world look towards recovery from Covid-19, many will be considering how to keep global warming well below 2 °C while ensuring affordable and sustainable energy access for growing populations. This will require transforming the way electricity is generated, managed and delivered.

This guide for local governments describes when and how to use a consumption-based emissions inventory, known as a CBEI. Numerous cities around the world have been exploring their carbon footprint using consumption-based emissions inventories (CBEIs).

This report is the first to bring together an overview of policy options available to national governments as well as guidance on how to design national urban policies around low-carbon, inclusive, sustainable development goals.

This study assesses the environmental integrity risks of international carbon markets under Article 6 of the Paris Agreement and discusses possible international rules to address them. A considerable risk is that several countries have mitigation targets that correspond to higher levels of emissions than business-as-usual (BAU) projections.

This paper examines how best to use revenues from a carbon tax to achieve both climate and non-climate goals, identifying pitfalls and strategies to avoid them. As many governments around the world consider carbon taxes (and other forms of carbon pricing), a common question is what to do with the revenue they generate.

International aviation produced an estimated 490.4 million tonnes (Mt) of carbon dioxide emissions in 2013, about 1.5% of global CO2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion that year, and as the role of aviation in the global economy expands, those emissions are expected to rise, to 682–755 Mt by 2020 and 1223–1376 Mt by 2035.

This working paper examines the ideal role of city governments under a vertically integrated climate governance system designed to maximize urban mitigation potential. Action by city governments is essential for achieving deep reductions in global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions.

For a long time, the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) has been criticized for its cumbersome procedures and risks of weak environmental integrity.

Carbon offset programs require the application of rigorous quantifi cation, verifi cation, and enforcement criteria in order to ensure that the integrity of greenhouse gas (GHG) caps is not compromised. Some types of climate change mitigation activities