Transition to a global zero-emission vehicle fleet: a collaborative agenda for governments
Governments around the world are seeking to promote electric vehicles—to reduce oil consumption, climate-related emissions, and local air pollution, and to stake out an industrial leadership position in the new advanced technology. These efforts are increasingly diverse, with governments, automakers, and advocates working to raise public awareness, promote sales, adapt the regulatory environment, build charging infrastructure, and provide financial support. Yet key questions remain—about which policy actions are working well, about how the various efforts around the world compare, and about whether best policy practices to promote electric vehicles are emerging. This paper synthesizes information on global electric vehicle policy activity as a foundation for increasing collaboration among governments around the world. It summarizes global adoption trends and national targets, as well as electric vehicle promotion policies (e.g., consumer incentives and charging infrastructure support) in selected markets. It summarizes research on the effectiveness of various electric vehicle policies to investigate emerging best practices. And it points toward an agenda for increased international cooperation and joint research to accelerate the transition to a zero-emission global vehicle fleet.